ls  

this command is use to print the list of files and folder in the current directory.

ls –l

this command is use to print the list files and folder in the long format i.e it displays the permission status, user or group name to which it belong, creation date, memory size, etc for the given data.

ls –al

this command do same as above command but also display the hidden folder and files.

ls –F

this command print the list of files and folder. In the output of the command folders are followed by / and executable files are followed by *

mkdir

command is use to create folder.

cd  

command is use to shift from one folder to another folder.

cd  ..  

this command helps us to move back to parent folder

cd /  

this command helps us to move back to the root folder

~              

symbol represent home directory

cd ~    

this command will take us to home directory of currently logged in user.

cat    

this command help us to print the contents of the files

cat >  

this command is use to create file

touch  

command is use to create an empty file

cp    

command is use to copy (copy and paste) the data from one folder to another folder

mv    

command is use to move (Cut and paste) the data from one folder to another folder

rmdir

command is use to delete the folder but only if the folder is empty

rm  

command is use to delete the file

rm –r  

command is use to remove files and folder in a recursive mode (delete folder and sub folder)

head

is used to print the data from the top of the file

e.g head -5 filename

-5 are the numbder of rows

tail

is used to print the data from the bottom of the file

e.g tail -5 filename

-5 are the number of rows

more  

is used to print the file in page wise format only in the forward direction

less

is used to print the file in page wise format in forward and backward  direction

Redirection Operators

             from input device to a file

<              from file to an output device or to another file

>> Append or add new data to an existing file, but only at the end of a file

cat list >> solaris

here the data of list file will be added at the end of solaris file

wc

word count
this command is use to count the number of lines word and character in a file
wc -l is use to count lines
wc -c is use to count character
wc -w is use to count words